Ngaba umphezulu wevalufa yentsimbi engenanto nawo umhlwa?

Yintoni intsimbi engenasici? Ekuqondeni kwabantu abaninzi, "intsimbi engenasici" yintsimbi engazukurusa, kodwa abathengi abaninzi bavelisa amabala erusi xa kuvela amabala amdaka amdaka (amabala) kumphezulu wezivalo zentsimbi. Siyintoni isizathu? Ivalves zensimbi ezingenasici zinokumelana neoksijini yomoya-oko kukuthi, zingena-stainless, kodwa zikwanakho ukubola ngaphakathi okuqukethe i-asidi, i-alkali, ityuwa-oko kukuthi, ukumelana nokubola. Nangona kunjalo, ubungakanani besakhono sayo sokulwa umhlwa notshintsho kunye nokwenziwa kweekhemikhali zentsimbi uqobo, imeko efanayo, iimeko zokusebenzisa kunye nohlobo lwendalo esingqongileyo. Njengepayipi yentsimbi engama-304, kwindawo eyomileyo necocekileyo, inesakhono esilungileyo sokulwa nokubola, kodwa xa isiwe kwindawo engaselwandle, kungekudala iza kurusa inkungu yolwandle enetyuwa eninzi; kwaye 316 umbhobho wentsimbi ubonisa elungileyo. Ke ngoko, ayilulo uhlobo lwentsimbi engenasici, enganyangekiyo ukubola kunye nomhlwa nakweyiphi na imeko.
Ivalve yensimbi engenasici isekwe kwifilimu ye-oxide ye-oxide ecekeceke kakhulu, eyomeleleyo, ethembekileyo kunye ne-chromium (ifilimu ekhuselayo) eyenziwe kumphezulu wayo ukuthintela ukungena kunye neoksijini yeeathom zeoksijini ekuqhubekeni nokufumana amandla okumelana nomhlwa. Kanye ngesizathu esithile, le filimu iyatshatyalaliswa ngokuqhubekekayo, iiathom zeoksijini ezisemoyeni okanye ezingamanzi ziya kuqhubeka nokungena okanye iiathom zentsimbi ezikwisinyithi ziya kuqhubeka zahlulahlula, zenze i-oxide yentsimbi evulekileyo, kwaye umphezulu wentsimbi uya kuqhubeka umhlwa. Zininzi iindlela zokonakalisa kulo mboniso bhanyabhanya,
Kukho iintlobo ezininzi zezivalo zensimbi ezingenasici eziqhelekileyo kubomi bemihla ngemihla:
1. Umphezulu wevalufa yentsimbi engenazingcingo uqokelela uthuli okanye amanye amasuntswana esinyithi aqukethe ezinye izinto zentsimbi. Emoyeni ofumileyo, i-condensate phakathi kwesiqhotyoshelweyo kunye nentsimbi engenasici idibanisa zombini ibhetri encinci, eqala ukusabela kwe-electrochemistry, ifilimu ekhuselayo yonakele, ibizwa ngokuba ngumhlwa we-electrochemical.
2. Ijusi yemicimbi ye-Organic (enjengevatala kunye nemifuno, isuphu yenadusi, isikhohlela, njl. Njl.) Ibambelela kumphezulu wevalufa yentsimbi engenasici. Phambi kwamanzi kunye neoksijini, yenza i-asidi ye-organic, kwaye i-asidi ye-organic iya konakalisa umphezulu wesinyithi ixesha elide.
3. Umphezulu wevalufa yensimbi engenazintsimbi uqukethe iasidi, ialkali kunye nezinto zetyuwa (ezinje ngamanzi ealkali kunye namanzi amatye atshiza eludongeni umhombiso), obangela umhlwa wendawo.
4. Emoyeni ongcolileyo (njengomoya oqukethe isixa esikhulu se-sulfide, i-carbon oxides, kunye ne-nitrogen oxides), amanzi afinyeziweyo aya kwenza i-acid ye-sulphuric, i-nitric acid, kunye ne-acetic acid fluid amabala, oko kubangele umhlwa wemichiza. Ezi meko zingentla zinokubangela ukonakala kwensimbi yentsimbi engatyiwa kukhuseleko kwaye kubangele umhlwa.
Ke ngoko, ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuba umphezulu wesinyithi uqaqambile ngokusisigxina kwaye awurusi, sicebisa:
1. Umphezulu wevalufa yentsimbi engenasici kufuneka ucocwe kwaye ukhuhlwe rhoqo ukususa izincamathelisi kunye nokuphelisa izinto zangaphandle ezibangela ukulungiswa.

2. Ivalve engenazintsimbi engama-316 kufuneka isetyenziswe kwindawo engaselwandle. Izinto ezingama-316 zinokumelana nokubola kwamanzi olwandle.

3. Ukwenziwa kweekhemikhali kweminye imibhobho yentsimbi engenasici kwimarike ayinakho ukufikelela kwimilinganiselo yesizwe ehambelanayo, kwaye ayinakho ukuhlangabezana neemfuno zezinto ezingama-304. Ke ngoko, iya kubangela umhlwa, ofuna ukuba abasebenzisi bakhethe ngononophelo kwiimveliso ezivela kubavelisi abaziwayo. Ukwakha kunye neendawo zokwakha zoqwalaselo Ukuthintela ukukrwela kunye nokubambelela kwezingcolisi ngexesha lolwakhiwo, kwakhiwa iivalvu zentsimbi engenasici kwimeko yomboniso bhanyabhanya. Nangona kunjalo, ngolwandiso lwexesha, intsalela yesisombululo sokuncamathisela ihambelana nexesha lokusetyenziswa kwefilimu. Emva kokususa ifilimu emva kokwakhiwa, umphezulu kufuneka uhlanjwe, kwaye izixhobo ezizodwa zentsimbi kufuneka zisetyenziswe. Xa ucoca izixhobo eziqhelekileyo ngentsimbi ngokubanzi, kufuneka icocwe ukuthintela ukubambelela kokufakwa kwentsimbi. . Unonophelo kufuneka lwenziwe ukuze kungavumeli umazibuthe onakalisa kakhulu kunye namayeza okucoca ubunewunewu bamatye ukunxibelelana nomphezulu wentsimbi. Ukuba banxibelelana, kufuneka bahlanjwe kwangoko. Emva kokuba ulwakhiwo lugqityiwe, sebenzisa isepha esingathathi hlangothi kunye namanzi ukuhlamba isamente, uthuthu lwempukane, njl njl.

Isishwankathelo, iivali zensimbi ezingenasici aziyi kuba ngumhlwa, kwaye ziya kuba nomhlwa phantsi kweemeko ezithile. Kufuneka sifakele, sigcine, kwaye silungise iivalvu zensimbi engenasici ngokuhambelana ngokungqongqo neemfuno, kwaye sizame ukulawula imeko yomhlwa weentsimbi zentsimbi ezingaphantsi kweemeko ezithile.


Ixesha Post: Meyi-02-2020